Antibacterial medications for systemic use. Cephalosporins of III generation. Code АТС J01D А23.
Cefixime is primarily bactericidal; it acts by binding to penicillin-binding proteins in the bacterial cell wall, thereby inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
It’s used in the treatment of otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae (penicillinase- and non- penicillinase-producing), Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis (which is penicillinase-producing), and Streptococcus pyogenes. Substantial drug resistance has been noted. Cefixime is also active in the treatment of acute bronchitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae (penicillinase- and non-penicillinase-producing), pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes, and uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by E. coli and P. mirabilis.
Absorption: About 30% to 50% is absorbed following oral administration. The suspension form provides a higher serum level than the tablet form. Absorption is delayed by food, but the total amount absorbed isn’t affected.
Distribution: Widely distributed; about 65% is bound to plasma proteins.
Metabolism: About 50% is metabolized.
Excretion: Excreted primarily in the urine. In patients with end-stage renal disease, half-life may be prolonged to 11 1/2 hours.
Infections caused by susceptible microorganisms:
• acute and chronic bronchitis;
• acute pneumonia;
• inflammation of the middle ear;
• pharyngitis, tonsillitis and sinusitis of bacterial etiology;
• bacterial infections of the genitourinary system.
Reactions from the digestive tract (intestinal cramps, moderate diarrhea, nausea, vomiting); headache; mucosal candidiasis; vaginal candidiasis (vaginal itching or discharge); hypoprotrombinemia (bleeding and bruising without visible causes); pseudomembranous colitis (cramps and pain in the stomach and intestines, severe bloody diarrhea, fever); allergic reactions, in particular anaphylaxis, erythema multiforme or Stevens-Johnson syndrome; hearing loss; hemolytic anemia; unusual fatigue or weakness; yellowish eye proteins or skin; kidney function disorder; whey disease; thrombophlebitis.